What defines a substance use disorder? The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the official text on which diagnoses are based, contains criteria for substance use disorders and other mental health problems. The latest version of DSM, known as DSM-5, has some significant changes to the list of substance use disorders and the criteria that must be met to diagnose them.
In the last edition of the DSM, DSM-IV, there were two categories: substance abuse and substance dependence. The DSM-5 combines these two categories called "substance use disorder."
Suppose substance use causes significant problems in someone's life, such as health issues, disability, and/or not meeting responsibilities at work, home, or school. In that case, they may have a substance use disorder.
Criteria for Substance Use Disorder
Substance use disorders are classified as mild, moderate, or severe, depending on how many diagnostic criteria a person meets. The 11 DSM-5 criteria for a substance use disorder are:
Hazardous use: You have used the substance in ways that are dangerous to yourself and others, i.e., overdosed, driven while under the influence, or blacked out.
Social or interpersonal problems related to use: Substance use has caused relationship problems or conflicts with others.
Neglected major roles to use: You have failed to meet your responsibilities at work, school, or home because of substance use.
Withdrawal: When you stop using the substance, you experience withdrawal symptoms.
Tolerance: You have built up a tolerance to the substance, so you have to use more to get the same effect.
Used more significant amounts/longer: You have started to use larger doses of the substance for extended amounts of time.
Repeated attempts to control the use or quit: You've tried to cut back or quit entirely but haven't been successful.
Much time spent using: You spend a lot of your time using the substance.
Physical or psychological problems related to use: Your substance use has led to physical health problems, such as liver damage or lung cancer, or psychological issues, such as depression or anxiety.
Activities given up to use: You have skipped or stopped doing activities you once enjoyed to use the substance.
Craving: You have experienced cravings for the substance.
To be diagnosed with a substance use disorder, you must meet two or more of these criteria within 12 months. You have a mild substance use disorder if you meet two or three criteria, four to five is considered moderate, and you have a severe substance use disorder if you meet six or more criteria.
Types of Substance Use Disorders
Each substance use disorder is classified as its own disorder. Here are the six most common substance use disorders in the United States:
Alcohol use disorder
Tobacco use disorder
Cannabis use disorder
Stimulant use disorder
Hallucinogen use disorder
Opioid use disorder
If you or a loved one are struggling with substance use or addiction, contact Another Solution. We have been helping individuals and families challenged by addictions for 25 years. We provide thorough clinical evaluations and assessments, leaving no stone unturned, allowing us to identify and address every element of addiction needing treatment.
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